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Transatlantic Revolutions

The main question I found to ask was how the existence of the “transatlantic community” helped facilitate and shape the revolution in Hati. It is clear that the French revolution had an impact across the atlantic. The french were themselves influenced by the American revolution, and both were based in Enlightenment ideas coming from Europe. The influence of French revolution comes through in the writings of the Hatian Revolutions leaders. In addition, the Hatian revolution effected the French across the Atlantic, eventually resulting in the abolition of slavery in the new French republic during the “reign of terror.”

11/20 Question

What evidence was there to suggest there was a population concern in Haiti?

For starters in 1779 there were 7,055 people of color in Saint-Domingue. A mere eight years later there were almost 20,000. This means that in less than a decade the population of POC had more than doubled. An astonishing rate of growth. Compare that to France’s population that barely grew by one-ninth over a 72 year period. There was little indication that this population would slow down due to unrestrained lechery of so many white people in the area. Coupled with rising tensions amongst slaves and freed blacks there was an obvious concern within French minds that an uprising was very much possible. It is rather ironic that the population that the French tried to keep down grew in such great numbers due to their own sexual actions.

Class Notes September 23

In class on Tuesaday September 23, we covered the two versions of conquest, with Three different perspectives. The reading was from the Florentine Codex, writings from Bernel Diaz and Hernàn Cortez. One being from Bernal Diaz work The Truth History of the Conquest of New Spain. In this work, he describes how the Indians interact and their life in general. It brings an insight into the ability of the Indians, what they used as weapons and the binding relationships of trading. With explaining the beautiful gifts, the Indians brought, while the Spanish gave unusual blue and green beads. This represents how the Europeans often took advantage of the indigenous people. The next work that was discussed was by the one and only Hernán Cortés. His journal is the most interesting personally to me, the way he describes the environment and indigenous people by exaggerating it all. Why Cortés does, this is because he is writing to the king and the hope of new supplies. He describes the indigenous people as good people until the idea of sacrifice comes into play. When he describes the actions of the sacrifice, he then goes into saying that they need to save the indigenous people and show them, god. While looking at the work from the indigenous people, they talk about they often gave extravagant gifts so that the Spanish wouldn’t kill them. Indigenous reports are rare to find and cause historians to have to analyze what was the truth of what happened.

Key Terms:
Florentine Codex: The Florentine Codex is a 16th-century ethnographic research study in Mesoamerica by the Spanish Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún. The work consists of 2,400 pages organized into twelve books; more than 2,000 illustrations drawn by native artists provide vivid images of this era. It documents the culture, religious cosmology (worldview) and ritual practices, society, economics, and natural history of the Aztec people. It has been described as “one of the most remarkable accounts of a non-Western culture ever composed.”

Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo: was a Spanish conquistador, who participated as a soldier in the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés and late in his life wrote an account of the events
Hernán Cortés: a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century
Malintzin (Doña Marina):was a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who played a key role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, acting as an interpreter, advisor, and intermediary for the Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés.

Chamberlain, Robert S. “Two Unpublished Documents of Hernán Cortés and New Spain, 1519 and 1524.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 18, no. 4, 1938, pp. 514–525. JSTOR,
ALMON, BERT. “Woman as Interpreter: Haniel Long’s ‘Malinche.’” Southwest Review, vol. 59, no. 3, 1974, pp. 221–239. JSTOR,
Brinkerhoff, Thomas J. “Reexamining the Lore of the ‘Archetypal Conquistador’: Hernán Cortés and the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire, 1519-1521.” The History Teacher, vol. 49, no. 2, 2016, pp. 169–187.,
Exam Questions:
What was the primary purpose of the Florentine Codex? How does it compare and contrast to Bernal Diaz work?
How does the Aztecs culture differ to the other indigenous groups we have studied thus far, and how has their actions differ in the way they interact with the Europeans?
How should historians view The Truth History of the Conquest of New Spain

Revised Research

How were women forced to adapt to traditionally European Christian gender roles in colonial Mesoamerica? How can looking at the tradition of nunneries and Christian girls education help answer this question?



Cruz, Juana Inés De La, and Jeremy Dean. “In Reply to a Gentlemean from Peru, Who Sent Her 

Clay Vessels While Suggesting She Would Better Be a Man”. Poems Protest and Dreams.



Bokser, Julie A. “Sor Juana’s Rhetoric of Silence.” Rhetoric Review 25, no. 1 (2006): 6-34.


Burkett, Elinor. “In Dubious Sisterhood: Class and Sex in Spanish Colonial America.” Latin 

American Perspectives (1977).


Myers, Kathleen. “The Mystic Triad in Colonial Mexican Nuns’ Discourse: Divine Author, Visionary Scribe, and Clerical Mediator.” Colonial Latin American Historical Review (1997).


Myers, Kathleen. “Neither Saints nor Sinners: Writing the Lives of Women in Spanish America.” (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). 


Diving deeper into the topic of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, I want to specifically look at indigenous population help. Whether this be through Dona Marina or other tribes helping to overthrow the Aztecs. I want to grasp a better understanding at why natives would help Europeans overthrow the Aztecs, and to what extent did their aid help the Spanish. How did the Spanish get some to cooperate with them and others to not? All things I look forward at continuing to research.

Primary Source- Documents from Victors and Vanquished

Secondary Sources- Brinkerhoff, Thomas J. “Reexamining the Lore of the “Archetypal Conquistador”: Hernán Cortés and the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire, 1519-1521.” The History Teacher 49, no. 2 (2016): 169-87.

Daniel, Douglas A. “Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs.” Anthropological Quarterly 65, no. 4 (1992): 187-94.

“Doña Marina.” In Survivors in Mexico, edited by Schweizer Bernard, by West Rebecca, 116-28. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003.

Bassett, Molly H. “Meeting the Gods.” In The Fate of Earthly Things: Aztec Gods and God-Bodies, 26-44. University of Texas Press, 2015.

Martin, Scott. “Command Decisions: The Conquest of Mexico and the Friedman-Savage Utility Function.” Social Science History 34, no. 4 (2010): 499-522.

*Exact specificity of research question subject to change the more I dive into sources on the matter.

Research: Christopher Columbus effects on the New World and a comparison of how he was depicted then versus now

I would like to study Christopher Columbus as a person, his effects on Latin America, and how he is portrayed today. I think that it would be fascinating to delve into him as a person, which would illustrate the views of Spanish explorers and conquistadors at that time period. I think that it would also be especially interesting to compare how he is celebrated in America versus what his actions were and how he affected these civilizations. Christopher Columbus’s importance is well known, as he opened up the New World to Europe, and researching him as a person would bring a greater understanding to both sides of the world at this time period.

Primary Source

Columbus’ Coat of Arms in Christopher Columbus, His Book of Privileges,

Secondary Sources (Library of Congress exhibit on Christopher Columbus

The Worlds of Christopher Columbus By William D. Phillips

North American Hero? Christopher Columbus 1702-2002 By John P. Larner

Discovering Christopher Columbus: How History is Invented By Kathy Pelta

Holt Office Hours Fall 2019

I’m writing to update my office hours for fall 2019.

I hold office hours:

  • Tuesdays from 10:00-11:00
  • Wednesdays from 3:30-4:30
  • Fridays from 10:00-11:00
  • Other times by appointment

Come by and see me with questions about assignments, advice as you plan your OCS in Latin America, or to find out more about majoring in History or Global  & International Studies!

I give priority to students who book appointments with  but “office hours” mean you can just drop by at these set times and talk with me if I’m not busy with another student.  My office is in Kauke 119.  Talk to you soon!